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By Arthur Kenneth Holliday

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E. A + B ~ or A"B + . To form the first in the gas phase requires an energy /A - £B ; to form the second requires an energy /B - £A Whichever energy is the lesser will indicate the direction of electron transfer ; if A is more electronegative than B then we require that A ~ B + is favoured and thus that f A - /B > JB - £A or /A + £A > /B + £B and on this basis the order of values of / 4- E indicates an electronegativity scale, STRUCTURE AND BONDING 51 on wave-mechanics. e. as H—Cl or H "*" Cl~).

E. it has an extremely high melting point, indicating that the bonding forces are extremely strong. Boron nitride (BN)n and silicon carbide (SiC)n (carborundum) are similar types of solid. These solids are non-conducting, indicating that the electrons are less free and more localised than the electrons in a metal which move easily allowing an electric current to flow through the lattice. THE GIANT IONIC LATTICE This is one of the most familiar types of structure in inorganic chemistry. The crystals can usually be melted in the laboratory STRUCTURE AND BONDING 27 although considerable heating is often required.

STRUCTURE AND BONDING 45 Smaller and more highly charged ions such as magnesium and aluminium attract water strongly, and in these cases the attractive forces between the water and the ions are so great that salts containing water of crystallisation decompose when attempts are made to dehydrate them by heating— the process being called hydrolysis. For example, [Mg(H2O)2] 2 + [Mg(OH)]+Cr + HC1 4- H 2 O or, as more commonly written. MgCl2 . 045 nm, found in aluminium trifluoride, undergoes a similar reaction when a soluble aluminium salt is placed in water at room temperature.

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