By Elspeth R. M. Dusinberre
The Achaemenid Persian Empire (550-330 BCE) was once an enormous and complicated sociopolitical constitution that encompassed a lot of modern day Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Egypt, Iraq, Iran, and Afghanistan, and integrated dozen specified peoples who spoke diverse languages, worshiped varied deities, lived in several environments, and had broadly differing social customs. This e-book bargains an intensive new method of realizing the Achaemenid Persian Empire and imperialism extra usually. via a big selection of textual, visible, and archaeological fabric, Elspeth R. M. Dusinberre indicates how the rulers of the empire developed a approach versatile adequate to supply for the wishes of alternative peoples in the confines of a unmarried imperial authority and highlights the variety in reaction. This booklet examines the dynamic tensions among authority and autonomy around the empire, offering a helpful new method of contemplating imperial constitution and improvement.
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Additional resources for Empire, Authority, and Autonomy in Achaemenid Anatolia
56 The Urartians presumably practiced seasonal transhumance to shelter animals indoors during the bitter winters. Their hardiness was a necessary correlate of their living conditions; when Xenophon passed through the area soon after 400, he was overwhelmed by the physical and climatic hardships of the territory: The houses were underground structures with an aperture like the mouth of a well by which to enter, but they were broad and spacious below. The entrance for the beasts of burden was dug out, but the human occupants descended by a ladder.
The duties of a satrap were complex, and they depended to a certain extent on the region governed. He collected the taxes, controlled local officials and the 34 ! 14 He was responsible for the safety of the roads and had to quell brigands and rebels. He had to maintain a well-equipped, well-trained, loyal army to protect the land; he had to exact taxes and might need the army’s assistance. 16 The satrap had to ensure the productivity of the land in order to collect taxes; this required maintaining a sufficiently high level of capability among the people tending the land that they might husband it to good effect.
Thus the end of the Middle Phrygian period, the years right before Cyrus arrived in central Anatolia, saw a time of mixed ethnicities and influences at Gordion, a time when conquest and commerce brought different peoples and ideas to this ancient city and the local populace responded with various degrees of enthusiasm to the presence and habits of foreign conquerors. Lydia Lydia, with its capital city at Sardis, made up much of western and northwestern Anatolia by the time Cyrus arrived in the mid–sixth century.