Download Archaeology of the Lower Muskogee Creek Indians, 1715-1836 by Howard Thomas Foster II, Mary Theresa Bonhage-Freund, Lisa PDF

By Howard Thomas Foster II, Mary Theresa Bonhage-Freund, Lisa D. O'Steen

The first finished archaeological survey of the Muskogee (Maskókî) Creek Indians.
 
The Muskogee Indians who lived alongside the reduce Chattahoochee and Flint River watersheds had, and proceed to have, a profound impact at the improvement of the southeastern usa, in particular in the course of the ancient interval (circa 1540–1836). Our wisdom of that tradition is restricted to what we will be able to research from their descendants and from archaeological and historic assets.
 
Combining ancient files and archaeological learn on all identified decrease Muskogee Creek websites, Thomas Foster has appropriately pinpointed city destinations mentioned within the literature and suggested in modern Creek oral histories. In so doing, this quantity synthesizes the archaeological range and edition in the decrease Creek Indians among 1715 and 1836. The publication is a examine of archaeological equipment since it analyzes the temporal and geographic version inside of a unmarried archaeological part and the biases of that archaeological data. Foster's examine segregates the adaptation among decrease Creek Indian cities via a neighborhood and direct historical process. accordingly, he's capable of figure the original variations among person Creek Indian towns. 
 
Foster argues that the learn of Creek Indian heritage could be on the point of cities rather than archaeological stages and that there's major continuity among the tradition of the old interval Indians and the Prehistoric and Protohistoric peoples.
  

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2; Waselkov and Braund 1995:¤g. 33). 2). The small rectangles represent individual house structures within a house lot indicated by dotted lines. Each family ideally had four house structures organized around a courtyard forming a square about the size of a half-acre (Waselkov and Braund 1995:93). 2. Individual families had small gardens immediately adjacent to their house. Towns were located along the major rivers in the area, the Tallapoosa, Coosa, Alabama, Flint, and Chattahoochee, usually for access to natural resources 24 / Foster (Waselkov and Smith 2000; Worth 2000).

The renowned botanist William Bartram, who traveled among and wrote about Creek Indians during the 1770s, was astute in his observations of plants used and grown by the Indians. He observed that the Creek people grew corn, rice, sweet potatoes, beans, squash, and watermelons (Waselkov and Braund 1995:165). Benjamin Hawkins noted a dependence on similar produce 20 years later, in 1796 (Foster 2003a:21). Some Indians had begun growing Europeanintroduced foods like rice, but the main diet for the majority of people came from native products such as corn and beans.

S. governments between 1825 and 1836. A few towns resettled short distances away during the eighteenth to early nineteenth century, but they remained on the Chattahoochee River. For example, Cussetuh occupied at least two locations on the Chattahoochee River between 1715 and 1825 (Foster 2003a:58s). DEMOGRAPHY Population statistics on the Creek Indians of the eighteenth century are abundant, although the validity of those statistics is unknown. Since the populations that made up the Creek Indians were so variable, estimation of the numbers of the entire Creek people is not meaningful over time.

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