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By Michel Foucault

In France, a rustic that awards its intellectuals the prestige different nations provide their rock stars, Michel Foucault was once a part of a glittering new release of thinkers, one that additionally integrated Sartre, de Beauvoir and Deleuze. one of many nice highbrow heroes of the 20 th century, Foucault used to be a guy whose ardour and cause have been on the carrier of approximately each innovative reason behind his time. From legislations and order, to psychological future health, to strength and information, he spearheaded public expertise of the dynamics that carry us all in thrall to a couple strong ideologies and pursuits. Arguably his most interesting paintings, Archaeology of Knowledge is a demanding yet beautifully profitable advent to his rules.

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56 The Urartians presumably practiced seasonal transhumance to shelter animals indoors during the bitter winters. Their hardiness was a necessary correlate of their living conditions; when Xenophon passed through the area soon after 400, he was overwhelmed by the physical and climatic hardships of the territory: The houses were underground structures with an aperture like the mouth of a well by which to enter, but they were broad and spacious below. The entrance for the beasts of burden was dug out, but the human occupants descended by a ladder.

The duties of a satrap were complex, and they depended to a certain extent on the region governed. He collected the taxes, controlled local officials and the 34 ! 14 He was responsible for the safety of the roads and had to quell brigands and rebels. He had to maintain a well-equipped, well-trained, loyal army to protect the land; he had to exact taxes and might need the army’s assistance. 16 The satrap had to ensure the productivity of the land in order to collect taxes; this required maintaining a sufficiently high level of capability among the people tending the land that they might husband it to good effect.

Thus the end of the Middle Phrygian period, the years right before Cyrus arrived in central Anatolia, saw a time of mixed ethnicities and influences at Gordion, a time when conquest and commerce brought different peoples and ideas to this ancient city and the local populace responded with various degrees of enthusiasm to the presence and habits of foreign conquerors. Lydia Lydia, with its capital city at Sardis, made up much of western and northwestern Anatolia by the time Cyrus arrived in the mid–sixth century.

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