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By Deon Liles

This booklet offers an Introductory method of Human Evolution.

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In human genetics, the haplogroups most commonly studied are Y-chromosome (YDNA) haplogroups and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, both of which can be used to define genetic populations. Y-DNA is passed solely along the patrilineal line, from father to son, while mtDNA is passed down the matrilineal line, from mother to both daughter and son. The Y-DNA and mtDNA may change by chance mutation at each generation. Variable number tandem repeats A variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) is a location in a genome where a short nucleotide sequence is organized as a tandem repeat.

2,000 generations). Richard G. , pushing back the dates for subsequent population splits as well. The rapid expansion of a previously small population has two important effects on the distribution of genetic variation. First, the so-called founder effect occurs when founder populations bring only a subset of the genetic variation from their ancestral population. Second, as founders become more geographically separated, the probability that two individuals from different founder populations will mate becomes smaller.

Most of these SNPs are neutral but some are functional and influence phenotypic differences between humans through alleles. It is estimated that a total of 10 million SNPs exist in the human population of which at least 1% are functional. Copy number variation More recently a better understanding of the structure of the genome has been gained with the publication of two examples of full sequences of an individual's genome. This represents a new development because the Human Genome Project and a parallel project by Celera Genomics produced two haploid sequences, both of which were an amalgamation of sequences from many individuals.

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