By A.E. Shilov, Georgiy B. Shul'pin, Alexander E. Shilov
Hemistry is the technology approximately breaking and forming of bonds among atoms. the most very important approaches for natural chemistry is breaking bonds C–H, in addition to C–C in quite a few compounds, and basically, in hydrocarbons. between hydrocarbons, saturated hydrocarbons, alkanes (methane, ethane, propane, hexane and so on. ), are particularly beautiful as substrates for chemical changes. the reason is,, at the one hand, alkanes are the most parts of oil and usual gasoline, and hence are the central feedstocks for chemical undefined. nonetheless, those elements are recognized to be the fewer reactive natural compounds. Saturated hydrocarbons should be referred to as the “noble gases of natural chemistry” and, if this is the case, the 1st consultant in their kin – methane – should be in comparison with tremendous inert helium. As in all comparisons, this parallel among noble gases and alkanes isn't totally exact. certainly the alterations of alkanes, together with methane, were identified for a very long time. those reactions contain the interplay with molecular oxygen from air (burning – the most resource of energy!), in addition to a few mutual interconversions of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. even though, these kinds of adjustments take place at increased temperatures (higher than 300–500 °C) and tend to be characterised via an absence of selectivity. The conversion of alkanes into carbon dioxide and water in the course of burning is an incredibly precious strategy – yet now not from a chemist standpoint.
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Extra resources for Activation and Catalytic Reactions of Saturated Hydrocarbons in the Presence of Metal Complexes
We may note that the mechanisms of reactions included in the last two types are, in general, not the same for paraffins, on the one hand, and aromatic hydrocarbons, on the other hand, even if the products of these reactions are of the same type. For example, alcohols and phenols may be obtained from alkanes and arenes respectively by the reaction in air with hydroxyl radicals generated by the action of a metal complex. However, in the case of alkane, an alcohol can be formed by the reduction of alkyl peroxide, whereas hydroxyl is added to an arene with subsequent oxidation of a radical formed.
They were interpreted as insertion into C–H bond and H atom abstraction. The insertion component dominates for small molecules with strong C–H bonds, while the abstraction component is the dominant mechanism for formation of OH radical in the cases of larger molecules with stronger steric hindrances and weaker C–H bonds. An insertion mechanism of the interaction of singlet state oxygen with methane was confirmed in ab initio theoretical calculations [8e]. 66 and then oxygen atom migrates off-axis.
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