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Extra resources for Acceptability of Risk From Radiation - Human Spaceflight

Example text

The NTP publishes, on a biannual basis, a Report on Carcinogens. The 11th report contained 246 entries, 58 of which were listed as “human carcinogens” with the remaining 188 being listed as “reasonably anticipated to be human carcinogens” (NTP, 2005). The potency of the various agents for causing cancer is quite varied. ” Cancer as an endpoint For cancer as an endpoint, animal exposure–response studies may provide two kinds of input. First, the results may be used in carcinogen classification processes such as those of the IARC, the EPA or NTP.

The NIOSH develops recommended exposure levels (RELs). RELs are set at levels such that virtually all persons in the working population (with the possible exception of hypersensitive individuals) would experience no adverse effects. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) sets permissible exposure levels (PELs) based on consideration of the NIOSH RELs. However, the OSHA values are legally enforceable limits unlike the NIOSH RELs which are guidance. The International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS) prepares authoritative reviews on the environmental health impact of various chemicals.

A TLV is defined as airborne concentrations of substances that represent conditions under which it is believed that nearly all workers may be repeatedly exposed day after day without adverse health effects. qxd 1/19/07 7:00 PM Page 21 TOXICOLOGICAL DESCRIPTORS apply to healthy workers they may not always incorporate an SF or UF of 10 for human variability. The exposure duration for TLVs is based on a 40-h/work week and, thus, the results of animal studies will be normalized to 40 h/week. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) develops minimal risk levels (MRLs) using a similar methodology.

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