By Woolley Adam
This sensible, common, and informative textual content surveys easy rules of toxicology. it's a useful consultant to comparing toxicity and similar info, imminent toxicity trying out and interpretation, and knowing the innovations of danger prediction and probability evaluate and administration.
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Extra resources for A Guide to Practical Toxicology: Evaluation, Prediction, and Risk
The interaction of one cell with another is another aspect of the cellular basis of toxicity. In normal tissue, adjacent cells have channels between them through which small molecules can pass; cells in which these gap junctions are still patent are less prone to proliferation than when they are closed. Several tumor promoters, for example, phorbol esters and phenobarbital, reduce intercellular communication through gap junctions and this is thought to lead to transformation of the cells and so to neoplasia.
Both positions are extremes and inevitably the truth probably lies between them. In other words, an ideal situation is where the use of animals is reduced to an extent where there is sufﬁcient scientiﬁc “comfort” to make a sensible and secure assessment of the risks. For some chemicals, one species will be a better model for humans than another, and for this reason, it has become normal practice to study toxicity of new drugs or pesticides in two mammalian species. ” ETHICS OF TOXICOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT The use of animals instead of humans in toxicity testing has been considered brieﬂy above.
Other parts of the kidney, notably the glomerulus and the pelvis, do not repair so readily in parts due to differences in embryonic origin. As suggested by the example of the kidney, tissues which do not divide readily, do not repair easily or in some cases, at all. Of these, the usual example is the central nervous system, another tissue with a large functional reserve that can be overwhelmed by insidious toxic actions over a period of years. CELLULAR BASIS AND CONSEQUENCES OF TOXIC CHANGE With the exception of a few substances that are corrosive, direct effects of toxic substances are expressed in individual cells.